| ||> 再生能源為什麼會改變地緣政治
For two centuries, the geographic concentration of oil, natural gas and coal reserves has helped configure the international geopolitical landscape. Coal and steam power drove the Industrial Revolution which, in turn, shaped geopolitics in the 19th century. Since then, control over the production of and trade in oil has been a key feature of 20th century power politics. A transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy could transform global power relations no less than the historical shifts from wood to coal and from coal to oil.
Repositioning of states
The vulnerability of fossil fuel exporters
Energy security for fossil fuel importers
The rise of renewable energy leaders
New actors: citizens, cities and corporations
New relations between states
Renewable energy will not merely influence the balance of power between countries. It will also reconfigure alliances and trade flows, and create new interdependencies around electric grids and new commodities.
Shifting alliances (OPEC 的話語權會被削弱)
New geographies of trade
Rethinking energy statecraft
States have long used energy resources as instruments of foreign policy, a practice known as energy statecraft. In a world powered mostly by renewables, energy resources will lose much of their currency as geopolitical instruments. In the words of former US President Jimmy Carter: “No one can ever embargo the sun or interrupt its delivery to us”. At the same time, a reliance on other commodities, such as electricity, biofuels, emerging fuels like hydrogen, or critical materials, could create new forms of dependence and vulnerability.