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|Record ID: 1560768678||From: 台灣|
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|Record ID: 1560768678R009||From: 美國|
|Record ID: 1560768678R010||From: 台灣|
|Record ID: 1560768678R011||From: 台灣|
No passion of another discovers itself immediately to the mind. We are only sensible of its causes or effects. From these we infer the passion: And consequently these give rise to our sympathy.
美的感覺非常依存於此原理; 在任何物件有一在所有者中生產愉快的傾向之場合、此常被視為美的理想 在任何物件有一在所有者中生產苦痛的傾向之場合、是不愉快及醜的
Our sense of beauty depends very much on this principle; and where any object has a tendency to produce pleasure in its possessor, it is always regarded as beautiful; as every object, that has a tendency to produce pain, is disagreeable and deform'd.
~David Hume A TREATISE OF HUMAN NATURE 『人間本性論』
The duplicity of beauty is predicated on a presumption of innocence that only women and children enjoy, for beauty connotes its virtue through an aesthetic of infantilism. As Leo Tolstoy rather famously said, “It is amazing how complete is the delusion that beauty is goodness.” Beauty is as such feminine rather than masculine in its aesthetic, for handsomeness neither connotes nor confers onto its possessor the same illusion of virtue that beauty does.
~illimitablemen.com WOMANLY DUPLICITY & ITS CONSTITUENT PARTS 『二心女及構成要素』
Man's notion of beauty is the fruit of his delight in his own continued existence. Whatever makes this existence easy, or is associated, in any manner, with life or vigor, seems to him to be beautiful.
The ugly is instinctively understood to be a sign and symptom of degeneration. That which reminds one, in the remotest degree, of degeneracy seems ugly. Every indication of exhaustion, heaviness, age, or lassitude, every constraint—such as cramp or paralysis—and above all, every odor, color or counterfeit of decomposition—though it may be no more than a far-fetched symbol—calls forth the idea of ugliness.
many things held to be utterly and unquestionably good or bad by modern civilization were once given quite different values—that the ancient Greeks considered hope a sign of weakness, and mercy the attribute of a fool, and that the Jews, in their royal days, looked upon wrath, not as a sin, but as a virtue—and in general he had demonstrated, by countless instances and arguments, that all notions of good and evil were mutable
Now, since all moral codes, as we have seen, are merely collections of the rules laid down by some definite group of human beings for their comfort and protection, it is evident that the morality of the master class has for its main object the preservation of the authority and kingship of that class, while the morality of the slave class seeks to make slavery as bearable as possible and to exalt and dignify those things in which the slave can hope to become the apparent equal or superior of his master.
Instead of a god to guide him, with commandments and the fear of hell, this immoralist would have his own instincts and intelligence. Instead of doing a given thing because the church called it a virtue or the current moral code required it, he would do it because he knew that it would benefit him or his descendants after him. Instead of refraining from a given action because the church denounced it as a sin and the law as a crime, he would avoid it only if he were convinced that the action itself, or its consequences, might work him or his an injury.
成功的偽善者 例 馬英九 陳國星
Such a man, were he set down in the world today, would bear an outward resemblance, perhaps, to the most pious and virtuous of his fellow-citizens, but it is apparent that his life would have more of truth in it and less of hypocrisy and cant and pretense than theirs. He would obey the laws of the land frankly and solely because he was afraid of incurring their penalties, and for no other reason, and he would not try to delude his neighbors and himself into believing that he saw anything sacred in them. He would have no need of a god to teach him the difference between right and wrong and no need of priests to remind him of this god's teachings. He would look upon the woes and ills of life as inevitable and necessary results of life's conflict, and he would make no effort to read into them the wrath of a peevish and irrational deity at his own or his ancestors' sins. His mind would be absolutely free of thoughts of sin and hell, and in consequence, he would be vastly happier than the majority of persons about him.
~H. L. Mencken PHILOSOPHY OF FRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE 『尼采哲學』
The relation between aesthetic and moral judgments, between the spheres of the beautiful and the good, is close, but the distinction between them is important. One factor of this distinction is that while aesthetic judgments are mainly positive, that is, perceptions of good, moral judgments are mainly and fundamentally negative, or perceptions of evil. Another factor of the distinction is that whereas, in the perception of beauty, our judgment is necessarily intrinsic and based on the character of the immediate experience, and never consciously on the idea of an eventual utility in the object, judgments about moral worth, on the contrary, are always based, when they are positive, upon the consciousness of benefits probably involved.
The truth is that morality is not mainly concerned with the attainment of pleasure; it is rather concerned, in all its deeper and more authoritative maxims, with the prevention of suffering.
He is a slave when all his energy is spent in avoiding suffering and death, when all his action is imposed from without, and no breath or strength is left him for free enjoyment.
The moment, however, that society emerges from the early pressure of the environment and is tolerably secure against primary evils, morality grows lax.
用語「邪惡」通常是一慣習的形容語句; 一大火事可被稱呼為一邪惡、因為此通常包含損失及苦痛; 但、在不關心我等不共有的損失及苦痛之下、我等喜於火炎、及依然稱呼使我等歡喜的是一邪惡、我等只使用此單語之從來的名稱、非感動的價值之符號
The term "evil" is often a conventional epithet; a conflagration may be called an evil, because it usually involves loss and suffering; but if, without caring for a loss and suffering we do not share, we are delighted by the blaze, and still say that what pleases us is an evil, we are using this word as a conventional appellation, not as the mark of a felt value.
~George Santayana THE SENSE OF BEAUTY 『美意識』
|Record ID: 1560768678R012||From: 台灣|
|Record ID: 1560768678R013||From: 美國|